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Critical care is a triumph of the last half-century. Today, devices (such as mechanical ventilators and kidney dialysis machines) and drugs (such as synthetic antimicrobials) can sustain life through illnesses that were lethal just decades ago. Yet despite successful stabilization and reversal of the process that triggered their critical illness, many patients still fail to recover and regain physiologic independence from their multiple supports. In this lecture, we will explore the way in which therapeutic failures and a specific therapeutic success -- tight control of blood sugar-- have been interpreted by biomedical scientists in the context of three leading theories of physiologic control: homeostasis, network theory and allostasis. The ambiguities and conflicts will illuminate opportunities for decision and control theorists and engineers in the emerging field of systems biology and its application to critical clinical medicine.
Timothy G. Buchman, PhD, MD, FACS, FCCM is the immediate Past President of the Society of Critical
Care Medicine. Buchman is the Harry Edison Professor of Surgery, Professor of Anesthesiology and
Medicine and the Chief of the Burn, Trauma, Surgical Care Section at Washington University School
of Medicine in St. Louis. He is also Director of the Level I Trauma Center and Attending Surgeon
at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis. Prior to moving to St. Louis, Dr. Buchman was Associate
Professor of Surgery, Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine and Director of the Training Program
in Surgical Critical Care at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, where he also held a Joint
Appointment in Molecular Biology and Genetics. The Associate Editor of Shock, Dr. Buchman has also
been a member of the following editorial boards: Critical Care Medicine, International Journal of
Surgical Investigation, The Journal of Surgical Research and The Journal of the American College of
Surgeons. He has published approximately 170 journal articles, abstracts, books and chapters. Currently,
Dr. Buchman has three National Institutes of Health grants. Additionally, Dr Buchman is a member of
the following professional societies: American Association for the Surgery of Trauma,American
Physiological Society, American Surgical Association, Association for Academic Surgery, Eastern
Association for the Surgery of Trauma, Shock Society, Society of University Surgeons and Surgical
Infection Society. Washington University has honored Dr. Buchman with the Senior Class Award for
Teacher of the Year and the Evarts A. Graham Resident Teaching Award. While at Johns Hopkins
University School of Medicine, Dr. Buchman was presented with the Anthony L. Imbembo Teaching Award
and the Baltimore Academy Teaching Award. Dr. Buchman completed his Fellowship in Traumatology and
Critical Care at the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Service Systems and his residency and
internship at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. He received a medical degree, a doctorate in
virology, a master's degree in organic chemistry and a bachelor's degree in chemistry from the
University of Chicago. Buchman’s research interests span the molecular mechanisms underlying the
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome; end-of-life care; and the genetics of sepsis.
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A canonical problem in bipedal robots is how to design a closed-loop system that generates stable, periodic motions (i.e., limit cycles). Some of the inherent difficulties facing the control engineer include: the intermittent nature of the contact conditions with the ground; the many degrees of freedom in the mechanisms; and underactuation. It is perhaps not surprising therefore that the most technologically advanced bipedal robots today are controlled on the basis of heuristic principles that result in restricted motions and require many experimental trials before successful locomotion is achieved. This lecture summarizes recent theoretical advances that allow the systematic design of provably, asymptotically stable, walking and running gaits in underactuated, planar, bipedal robots. The resulting feedback control laws are time invariant. In particular, they are constructed around fundamental notions of invariance---properly extended to hybrid systems---and do not rely on trajectory tracking. In the case of walking, experimental confirmation of the principal results will be presented. The lecture is designed to be accessible to control engineers of all types. The presentation is liberally illustrated with graphics and videos that explain and support the underlying theory. For further information, see:
The following individuals have made important contributions to the material in the lecture: G. Abba, Y. Aoustin, G. Buche, C. Canudas-de-Wit, C. Chevallereau, J.H. Choi, D. Koditschek, B. Morris, F. Plestan, and E.R. Westervelt. The support of the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.
Jessy W. Grizzle received the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from The University of Texas at Austin
in 1983. Since September 1987, he has been with The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he is a
Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. His research interests have often focused
on theoretical aspects of nonlinear systems and control, including geometric methods for continuous- and
discrete-time systems, and observer design in discrete-time. He has been a consultant in the automotive
industry since 1986, where he jointly holds fourteen patents dealing with emissions reduction through
improved controller design. His current interest in bipedal locomotion grew out of a sabbatical in
Strasbourg, France. Prof. Grizzle’s awards include: with K.L. Dobbins and J.A. Cook (Ford Motor Company),
1992 Paper of the Year Award from the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society; with G. Abba (Univ. of Metz, France)
and F. Plestan (Ecole Centrale, Nantes, France), the 2002 Axelby Award from the IEEE Control Systems Society;
and with J. Sun (Univ. of Michigan) and J. Cook (Ford), the 2003 IEEE Control Systems Society Technology Award.
He has served as Associate Editor for the Transactions on Automatic Control and Systems & Control Letters,
Publications Chairman for the 1989 CDC, and on the Control Systems Society’s Board of Governors in 1997-1999.
Currently, he is an Associate Editor for Automatica and a member of several awards committees. Prof. Grizzle
was elected Fellow of the IEEE in 1997.
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This panel reflects the scope and diversity of the unprecedented challenges and opportunities for the systems and controls community that has been created by several research themes from the basic sciences to advanced technologies. Connecting physical processes at multiple time and space scales in quantum, statistical, fluid, and solid mechanics, remains not only a central scientific challenge but also one with increasing technological implications. This is particular so in highly organized and nonequilibrium systems as in biology and nanotechnology, where interconnection, feedback, and dynamics are playing an increasingly central role.
Molecular biology has provided a detailed description of much of the componentry of biological networks, and the organizational principles of these networks are becoming increasingly apparent. It is now clear that much of the complexity in biology is driven by its control systems, however poorly understood these remain. At higher levels of organization, the feedback between humans and their ecosystems raise questions of both public health and technological sustainability. In addition, advanced technology is creating engineering examples of networks with complexity approaching that of biology. While the components are entirely different, there is striking convergence at the network level of the architecture and the role of protocols, control, and feedback in structuring complex system modularity.
Finally, there are new mathematical frameworks for the study of complex networks that suggest that this apparent network-level evolutionary convergence both within biology and between biology and technology is not accidental, but follows necessarily from the requirements that both be efficient, robust, and evolvable. Through combinations of evolution and natural selection or engineering design, such systems exhibit highly symbiotic interactions of extremely heterogeneous components to create functional hierarchies, with massive use of control and feedback throughout.
The next wave of the Information technology revolution, may well see the convergence of control with communication and computation. Much attention is currently directed at sensor networks, with the emergence of nodes that can sense, wirelessly communicate, and compute. Actuation is but the next step, leading to their full fledged use in both small-scale and broader cooperative control settings. With wireless networks possibly on the cusp of a take-off, and the growth of embedded processors, the future may see large collections of sensors and actuators orchestrated over the ether or inside the human body. Large systems with a variety of time, space, and energy saving usages can result.
Promising, popular, as well as specious theories of complex systems, deterministic or stochastic, all now coexist and compete for both research funding and the attention of the brightest young minds. In this context, the systems and controls community offers a unique perspective, combining rigor and practical relevance with a critical combination of dynamics, feedback, robustness, nonlinearity, design, and optimization. With the concepts of control and feedback at the heart of so many emerging multidisciplinary challenges, the controls community is poised to be a central enabler in the future of both basic scientific research and sustainable technology.
John Doyle (moderator) has a BS and MS, EE, MIT (1977), and a PhD, Mathematics, UC Berkeley (1984). He has been a Professor at Caltech since 1986, in the departments of Control and Dynamical Systems, Electrical Engineering, and BioEngineering. Early work was in the mathematics of robust control, LQG robustness, (structured) singular value analysis, H¥ and various more recent extensions. Current research interests are in theoretical foundations for complex networks in engineering and biology, as well as multiscale physics. Prize papers include the IEEE Baker, the IEEE AC Transactions Axelby (twice), and the AACC Schuck. Individual awards include the IEEE Control Systems Field Award, and the IEEE Centennial Outstanding Young Engineer. He has held national and world records and championships in various sports.
Jean M. Carlson is a professor of physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She received a B.S.E. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering Physics from Princeton University in 1984, an M.S.E. in Applied and Engineering Physics from Cornell University in 1987, and a Ph.D. in Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics from Cornell in 1988. She is a recipient of fellowship awards from the Sloan Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and the McDonnell Foundation. Carlson leads a research team working on a broad selection of interdisciplinary topics, including dynamics of earthquake faults, friction, and material deformation, optimization in networks and ecosystems, and fundamentals of statistical physics and mechanisms for scaling.
Christos G. Cassandras is Professor of Manufacturing Engineering and Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Boston University. He received degrees from Yale University (B.S., 1977), Stanford University (M.S.E.E., 1978), and Harvard University (S.M., 1979; Ph.D., 1982). He specializes in the areas of discrete event and hybrid systems, stochastic optimization, and computer simulation, with applications to computer and sensor networks, manufacturing systems, transportation systems, and command-control systems. He has published over 200 refereed papers in these areas, and two textbooks. He is currently Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. He is a member of the IEEE CSS Board of Governors, chaired the CSS Technical Committee on Control Theory, and served as Chair of several conferences, including the 43rd IEEE CDC. He has been a plenary speaker at various international conferences, including the ACC in 2001 and the IEEE CDC in 2002. He is the recipient of several awards, including the 1999 Harold Chestnut Prize (IFAC Best Control Engineering Textbook) for Discrete Event Systems: Modeling and Performance Analysis and a 1991 Lilly Fellowship. He is an IEEE Fellow.
P. R. Kumar obtained his B. Tech. degree from IIT Madras in 1973, and the M.S. and D.Sc. degrees from Washington University, St. Louis in 1975 and 1977, respectively. Since 1985 he has been at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, where he is currently Franklin Woeltge Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and a Research Professor in the Coordinated Science Laboratory. Prof. Kumar was the recipient of the Donald P. Eckman Award of the American Automatic Control Council in 1985. He has presented plenary lectures at IEEE TENCON', WiOpt, the Mediterranean Conf. on Control and Automation, German Open Conf. on Probability and Statistics, SIAM Annual Meetings, Institute of Mathematical Statistics Workshop on Applied Probability, Brazilian Automatic Control Congress, IEEE/IAS International Conf. on Industrial Automation and Control, IEEE CDC, SIAM Conf. on Optimization, SIAM Conference on Control in the 90's, etc. His current research interests include wireless networks, protocol development, sensor networks, the convergence of control with communication and computing, wafer fabrication plants, manufacturing systems, and machine learning.
Naomi Ehrich Leonard is Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University and Associated Faculty Member of the Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics at Princeton. Her research focuses on the dynamics and control of mechanical systems using nonlinear and geometric methods. Current interests include underwater vehicles, mobile sensor networks, adaptive sampling and application to observing and predicting physical processes and biological dynamics in the oceans. She received the B.S.E. degree in mechanical engineering from Princeton University in 1985, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland, College Park, in 1991 and 1994. She is the recipient of a National Science Foundation CAREER award, an ONR Young Investigator Award, and an Automatica Prize Paper Award. She has delivered plenary lectures at NOLCOS and SIAM Conf. on Applications of Dynamical Systems, and won a 2004 MacArthur Fellowship.
Hideo Mabuchi has worked in optical and atomic physics, using a combination of experimental and theoretical
approaches to study the behavior of quantum-mechanical systems under continuous observation. His continuing
research focuses on the use of real-time feedback for active control of quantum systems, and on clarifying
the transition from quantum to classical behavior. Developing new interests include the application of
mathematical methods from control theory to analyze and design complex physical systems, quantum optics
with nanostructures, molecular biophysics, translating quantum mechanics, and the role of information
technology in higher education. Mabuchi is currently an Associate Professor of Physics and Control &
Dynamical Systems at the California Institute of Technology. Mabuchi received his A.B. (1992) from
Princeton University and Ph.D. (1998) from Caltech. Selected honors include an Office of Naval Research
Young Investigator Award, and A. P. Sloan Research Fellowship, and a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur
Foundation Fellowship. He has been named among MIT Technology Review Magazine’s “Top 100 Young Innovators,”
and Discover Magazine’s “Twenty Scientists to Watch in the Next Twenty Years.”
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Fifty years ago, when control was emerging as a scientific discipline fueled by developments in dynamic recursive decision making, dynamical systems, and stability theory, a separate discipline, differential games, was being born in response to the need to develop a framework and associated solution tools for strategic dynamic decision making in adversarial environments. The evolution of the two disciplines—control theory, and particularly optimal control, and the theory of differential games, as an outgrowth of game theory—initially followed somewhat different paths, but soon a healthy interaction between the two developed. Differential games, in both zero-sum and nonzero-sum settings, enabled the embedding of control into a broader picture and framework, and enriched the set of conceptual tools available to it. One of its essential ingredients—information structures (who knows what and when)—became a mainstay in control research, particularly in the context of large-scale systems. In the other direction, the rich set of mathematical tools developed for control, such as viscosity solutions, directly impacted progress in solvability of differential games. Such interactions between the two disciplines reached a climax when robustness became a prevailing issue in control, leading among others to a comprehensive treatment of H¥ control of both linear and nonlinear uncertain systems.
This Bode Lecture will dwell on the parallel developments in the two fields to the extent they have influenced each other over the past half century, talk about the present, and project into the future.
Tamer Basar is the Fredric G. and Elizabeth H. Nearing Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). He received the B.S.E.E. from Robert College, Istanbul, in 1969, and M.S., M.Phil, and Ph.D. degrees from Yale University, during 1970-1972. After stints at Harvard University and Marmara Research Institute (Gebze, Turkey), he joined UIUC in 1981, where he has been since then with the ECE Department and the Coordinated Science Laboratory. He has authored or co-authored over 400 publications (including two books and several edited volumes) in the general areas of systems, control, dynamic games, information theory, communication systems and networks, and mathematical economics. He was elected Fellow of IEEE in 1983, and served Control Systems Society in various capacities, including: President (2000), Editor for Technical Notes and Correspondence for TAC (1992-1994), and General Chair (1992) and Program Chair (1989) of CDC. He is currently the Editor-in-Chief of Automatica; Editor of two Birkhäuser Series, in Systems & Control and Dynamic Games; and member of editorial and advisory boards of several international journals in control, wireless networks, and applied mathematics. Among some of the recent honors and awards he has received are: Tau Beta Pi Drucker Eminent Faculty Award of UIUC (2004), election to the National Academy of Engineering (2000), IEEE Millennium Medal (2000), Axelby Outstanding Paper Award (1995) and Distinguished Member Award (1993) of CSS, and Medal of Science of Turkey (1993). He will also receive the Quazza Medal of IFAC in 2005. His current research interests are in routing, pricing, and congestion control for communication networks; control over wired and wireless networks; mobile computing; and robust and risk-sensitive estimation and control.